Kapil Dev, in full Kapil Dev Ramlal Nikhanj, (born January 6, 1959, Chandigarh, India), Indian cricketer and the greatest pace bowler in his country’s history. He is the only cricketer to have scored over 5,000 runs and taken more than 400 wickets in Test (international match) cricket.
Dev made his debut in first-class cricket playing for his state, Haryana. He joined the Indian national team for a 1978–79 Test series against Pakistan. Although his tally of seven wickets over three matches in a losing effort was not the most spectacular of debuts, Dev played with great energy, possessing an impressive outswinger delivery and an aggressiveness that Indian cricket had not seen in a long while. In fact, Dev was India’s first genuine fast bowler, and he went on to lead the country’s bowling attack for the next two decades. He ended his Test career with a record 434 wickets in 131 Test matches (a record that was broken in 2000 by Jamaica’s Courtney Walsh), including 23 five-wicket matches. In one-day internationals, he took 253 wickets over 225 games.
Dev also made a mark as a hard-hitting middle-order batsman. In a 1978–79 Test series against the West Indies, he not only took seven wickets in the fourth Test but also scored 126 runs in the fifth Test to help India win the series. His attacking game, peppered often with huge boundaries (hits that cross the boundary of the field), helped him score 5,248 runs in 131 Tests (including eight centuries [100 runs in a single innings]) and 3,783 runs in 225 one-day internationals (with one century).
Dev was made the captain of the Indian national team in 1983. As a leader, he downplayed strategy and led by example. This was best seen in the 1983 Prudential Cup, when he almost single-handedly helped India defeat Zimbabwe with a 175 not out (his 175 runs were a career high). However, inconsistent performances led to his being relieved of the captaincy soon after the victory. He was even dropped from the side briefly in 1984.
Nevertheless, Dev played several match-winning innings for India. The most famous of these include his “5 for 28” (taking five wickets while conceding only 28 runs) against Australia to give India victory in the 1981 Melbourne Test; taking nine wickets against the West Indies in 1983; scoring 119 off of 138 balls to save India from a Test defeat against Australia in 1986; and slamming four consecutive sixes (balls that pass the boundary without ever touching the playing field) against England in 1990. He became only the second player in cricket history to claim 400 wickets, and in 1994 he broke Richard Hadlee’s record of 431 wickets.
Dev retired in 1994 and had a brief but unsuccessful 10-month spell as the coach of the Indian national team from October 1999 to August 2000. In 1999 he was implicated in a match-fixing controversy that led to his coaching departure, but he was later cleared of all charges after an investigation conducted by India’s Central Bureau of Investigation. He was chairman of India’s National Cricket Academy from 2006 to 2007 but was forced out when he became an executive in the privately funded upstart India Cricket League (ICL). He left the ICL in 2012 and returned to the good graces of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), the national governing body of Indian cricket.
Dev received two of India’s highest civilian honours: the Padma Shri (1982) and the Padma Bhushan (1991). In 2002 he was named the Indian Cricketer of the Century, and he was inducted into the International Cricket Council’s Hall of Fame in 2009.
Indian Premier League (IPL), Indian professional Twenty20 (T20)cricket league established in 2008. The league, which is based on a round-robin group and knockout format, has teams in major Indian cities.
The brainchild of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), the IPL has developed into the most lucrative and most popular outlet for the game of cricket. Matches generally begin in late afternoon or evening so that at least a portion of them are played under floodlights at night to maximize the television audience for worldwide broadcasts. Initially, league matches were played on a home-and-away basis between all teams, but, with the planned expansion to 10 clubs (divided into two groups of five) in 2011, that format changed so that matches between some teams would be limited to a single encounter. The top four teams contest three play-off matches, with one losing team being given a second chance to reach the final, a wrinkle aimed at maximizing potential television revenue. The play-off portion of the tournament involves the four teams that finished at the top of the tables in a series of knockout games that allows one team that lost its first-round game a second chance to advance to the final match.
With the advent of the IPL, almost overnight the world’s best cricketers—who had seldom made the kind of money earned by their counterparts in other professional sports—became millionaires. The owners of the IPL franchises, who included major companies, Bollywood film stars, and media moguls, bid for the best players in auctions organized by the league. At the outset of the IPL, the well-financed Mumbai Indians had the league’s biggest payroll, more than $100 million. It cost the Chennai Super Kings $1.5 million to secure the services of Mahendra Dhoni in the initial auction for the 2008 season and the Kolkata Knight Riders $2.4 million to sign Gautam Gambhir, the opening batsman for the Indian national team, in the bidding for the 2011 season.
The eight founding franchises were the Mumbai Indians, the Chennai Super Kings, the Royal Challengers Bangalore, the Deccan Chargers (based in Hyderabad), the Delhi Daredevils, the Punjab XI Kings (Mohali), the Kolkata Knight Riders, and the Rajasthan Royals (Jaipur). In late 2010 two franchises, Rajasthan and Punjab, were expelled from the league by the BCCI for breeches of ownership policy, but they were later reinstated in time for the 2011 tournament. Two new franchises, the Pune Warriors India and the Kochi Tuskers Kerala, joined the IPL for the 2011 tournament. The Kochi club played just one year before the BCCI terminated its contract. In 2013 the Deccan Chargers were replaced in the IPL by the Sunrisers Hyderabad.
The first tournament, held over 44 days in 2008, was won by the Rajasthan Royals, one of the smaller-market franchises, captained by Shane Warne, the great Australian bowler. In the wake of the IPL’s success, other cricketing countries scrambled to grab some of the riches by forming their own domestic T20 leagues.