Apex Current Page Reference In Essay

Editorial & news

APEX is a sister journal of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP) and is published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP).

This publication is partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Publication of Scientific Research Results from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Introducing APEX Reviews
The APEX Editorial Board are proud to introduce a new type of article – the APEX Review. These invited articles will concisely introduce emerging and fast-developing fields that will be of interest to the whole community. For more details, please refer to this introductory Editorial.

Expanded scope for APEX and JJAP
The Editorial Boards of APEX and JJAP are proud to announce that the subject of Physics-based circuits and systems will now be included in the scope of the journals. We encourage submissions of research articles on this exciting area of research. Submissions of the above subject will be available on April 2, 2018. For more information, please see the journals' scope pages.

APEX celebrates 10th anniversary
We are proud to mark the 10th anniversary of APEX in 2018, with a special collection of ten APEX letters—one selected from each year of publication of the journal. The collection may be found here.

A change to page limits for Letters
The APEX Editorial Board is pleased to announce a change to the four page limit for APEX Letters submitted from January 1st, 2018 (JST) onward. One additional printed page will be allowed, should the reference list extend beyond the four page limit. No page charges will be applied for the extra fifth page. We hope that APEX authors will appreciate this opportunity to provide as full a reference list as they feel is necessary. Please see the General Information and Submission Guideline for submissions on January 1st 2018 onward for full details.

APEX Impact Factor increases
The 2016 Impact Factor for APEX has been announced as 2.667. Professor Yutaka Majima, Chief Executive Editor of APEX and JJAP, said "I am very pleased to see the new Impact Factors of APEX and JJAP show increases to 2.667 and 1.384, respectively. I would like to say thank you to the readers, authors, reviewers and editors for their continuous and valued contributions to APEX and JJAP. We look forward to continuing to serve the applied physics community around the world."

APEX and JJAP are now CHORUS compliant
From March 2017, qualifying articles published in APEX and JJAP will be included in the CHORUS service. CHORUS is used by six US Funding Agencies to deliver their public access mandates. Authors will need to record their funding agencies at the time of submission, and then after an embargo period of 12 months from publication, the accepted version of the authors manuscript will be made publically available. More information is available at https://www.chorusaccess.org/.

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The following article is Open access

Three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN crystals using two-photon excitation photoluminescence

Tomoyuki Tanikawa et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 031004

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The three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN films was demonstrated using two-photon excitation photoluminescence. The threading dislocations were shown as dark lines. The spatial resolutions near the surface were about 0.32 and 3.2 µm for the in-plane and depth directions, respectively. The threading dislocations with a density less than 10 8 cm −2 were resolved, although the aberration induced by the refractive index mismatch was observed. The decrease in threading dislocation density was clearly observed by increasing the GaN film thickness. This can be considered a novel method for characterizing threading dislocations in GaN films without any destructive preparations.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.031004References

The following article is Open access

Thermal power generation during heat cycle near room temperature

Takayuki Shibata et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 017101

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We demonstrate that a sodium-ion secondary battery (SIB)-type thermocell consisting of two types of Prussian blue analogue (PBA) with different electrochemical thermoelectric coefficients ( SEC ≡ ∂ V/∂ T; V and T are the redox potential and temperature, respectively) produces electrical energy during heat cycles. The device produces an electrical energy of 2.3 meV/PBA per heat cycle between 295 K (= TL) and 323 K (= TH). The ideal thermal efficiency (η = 1.0%), which is evaluated using the heat capacity ( C = 4.16 meV/K) of ideal Na 2Co[Fe(CN) 6], reaches 11% of the Carnot efficiency (η th = 8.7%). Our SIB-type thermocell is a promising thermoelectric device that harvests waste heat near room temperature.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.017101References

The following article is Open access

True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Czeslaw Skierbiszewski et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 034103

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We demonstrate true-blue 450 nm tunnel junction (TJ) laser diodes (LDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The absence of hydrogen during PAMBE growth allows us to achieve TJs with low resistance. We compare TJ LDs with LDs of standard construction with p-type metal contact. For both types of LD, the threshold current density is around 3 kA/cm 2 and the slope efficiency is 0.5 W/A. We do not observe any significant changes in optical losses and differential gain in TJ LDs compared with standard LDs. The differential resistivity of the TJs for current densities higher than 2 kA/cm 2 is below 10 −4 Ω·cm 2.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.034103References

The following article is Open access

Possible electronic entropy-driven mechanism for non-thermal ablation of metals

Yuta Tanaka and Shinji Tsuneyuki 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 046701

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The physical mechanism of metal ablation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation was investigated in this study. Calculations based on finite-temperature density functional theory indicate that condensed copper becomes unstable at high electron temperatures due to an electronic entropy effect. Based on these results, an electronic entropy-driven mechanism is proposed to explain the metal ablation. Furthermore, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the ablation depth, where the effect of the electronic entropy is included. This mathematical model can quantitatively describe the experimental data in the low-laser-fluence region, where the electronic entropy effect is determined to be especially important.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.046701References

The following article is Open access

Polarity inversion of aluminum nitride by direct wafer bonding

Yusuke Hayashi et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 031003

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A novel fabrication process based on direct bonding technologies is proposed and demonstrated to achieve polarity inversion in AlN. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observation clearly showed an atomically flat bonding interface and an abrupt transition from Al polarity (+ c) to N polarity (− c) through a single monolayer. This ideal polarity inversion of III–nitride materials is expected to provide new insight into heteropolar device applications.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.031003References

Analogue spin–orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation

William A. Borders et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 013007

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We demonstrate associative memory operations reminiscent of the brain using nonvolatile spintronics devices. Antiferromagnet–ferromagnet bilayer-based Hall devices, which show analogue-like spin–orbit torque switching under zero magnetic fields and behave as artificial synapses, are used. An artificial neural network is used to associate memorized patterns from their noisy versions. We develop a network consisting of a field-programmable gate array and 36 spin–orbit torque devices. An effect of learning on associative memory operations is successfully confirmed for several 3 × 3-block patterns. A discussion on the present approach for realizing spintronics-based artificial intelligence is given.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.013007Cited byReferences

The following article is Open access

Digital processing with single electrons for arbitrary waveform generation of current

Yuma Okazaki et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 036701

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We demonstrate arbitrary waveform generation of current using a GaAs-based single-electron pump. In our experiment, a digital processing algorithm known as delta–sigma modulation is incorporated into single-electron pumping to generate a density-modulated single-electron stream, by which we demonstrate the generation of arbitrary waveforms of current including sinusoidal, square, and triangular waves with a peak-to-peak amplitude of approximately 10 pA and an output bandwidth ranging from dc to close to 1 MHz. The developed current generator can be used as the precise and calculable current reference required for measurements of current noise in low-temperature experiments.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.036701References

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Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1−xGex-O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

Tadatsugu Minami et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Express9 052301

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Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu 2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc–germanium-oxide (Zn 1−x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu 2O (Cu 2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content ( x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn 1−x Ge x -O and Cu 2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn 1−x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF 2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn 0.38Ge 0.62-O/Cu 2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.9.052301Cited byReferences

Comparative study of scintillation properties of Cs2HfCl6 and Cs2ZrCl6

Keiichiro Saeki et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Express9 042602

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The photoluminescence and scintillation properties of Cs 2HfCl 6 and Cs 2ZrCl 6 crystals were investigated. Two emission bands in the photoluminescence spectra were observed at 375 and 435 nm for the Cs 2HfCl 6 crystal and at 440 and 479 nm for the Cs 2ZrCl 6 crystal. Similar spectra were observed for radioluminescence. The decay time constants were found to be about 2.2 and 8.4 µs for Cs 2HfCl 6 and 1.5 and 7.5 µs for Cs 2ZrCl 6. The scintillation light yields were estimated to be 27,500 and 25,100 photons/MeV for Cs 2HfCl 6 and Cs 2ZrCl 6, respectively.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.9.042602Cited byReferences

Analogue spin–orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation

William A. Borders et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 013007

View abstractView articlePDF

We demonstrate associative memory operations reminiscent of the brain using nonvolatile spintronics devices. Antiferromagnet–ferromagnet bilayer-based Hall devices, which show analogue-like spin–orbit torque switching under zero magnetic fields and behave as artificial synapses, are used. An artificial neural network is used to associate memorized patterns from their noisy versions. We develop a network consisting of a field-programmable gate array and 36 spin–orbit torque devices. An effect of learning on associative memory operations is successfully confirmed for several 3 × 3-block patterns. A discussion on the present approach for realizing spintronics-based artificial intelligence is given.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.013007Cited byReferences

Enhancement-mode Ga2O3 MOSFETs with Si-ion-implanted source and drain

Man Hoi Wong et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 041101

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Enhancement-mode β-Ga 2O 3 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors with low series resistance were achieved by Si-ion implantation doping of the source/drain contacts and access regions. An unintentionally doped Ga 2O 3 channel with low background carrier concentration that was fully depleted at a gate bias of 0 V gave rise to a positive threshold voltage without additional constraints on the channel dimensions or device architecture. Transistors with a channel length of 4 µm delivered a maximum drain current density ( IDS) of 1.4 mA/mm and an IDS on/off ratio near 10 6. Nonidealities associated with the Al 2O 3 gate dielectric as well as their impact on enhancement-mode device performance are discussed.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.041101Cited byReferences

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MoSbTe for high-speed and high-thermal-stability phase-change memory applications

Wanliang Liu et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 041401

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Mo-doped Sb 1.8Te materials and electrical devices were investigated for high-thermal-stability and high-speed phase-change memory applications. The crystallization temperature ( tc = 185 °C) and 10-year data retention ( t10-year = 112 °C) were greatly enhanced compared with those of Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 ( tc = 150 °C, t10-year = 85 °C) and pure Sb 1.8Te ( tc = 166 °C, t10-year = 74 °C). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results show that the Mo dopant suppresses crystallization, reducing the crystalline grain size. Mo 2.0(Sb 1.8Te) 98.0-based devices were fabricated to evaluate the reversible phase transition properties. SET/RESET with a large operation window can be realized using a 10 ns pulse, which is considerably better than that required for Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 (∼50 ns). Furthermore, ∼1 × 10 6 switching cycles were achieved.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.041401References

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More Review articles

Neuromorphic computing enabled by physics of electron spins: Prospects and perspectives

Abhronil Sengupta and Kaushik Roy 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 030101

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“Spintronics” refers to the understanding of the physics of electron spin-related phenomena. While most of the significant advancements in this field has been driven primarily by memory, recent research has demonstrated that various facets of the underlying physics of spin transport and manipulation can directly mimic the functionalities of the computational primitives in neuromorphic computation, i.e., the neurons and synapses. Given the potential of these spintronic devices to implement bio-mimetic computations at very low terminal voltages, several spin-device structures have been proposed as the core building blocks of neuromorphic circuits and systems to implement brain-inspired computing. Such an approach is expected to play a key role in circumventing the problems of ever-increasing power dissipation and hardware requirements for implementing neuro-inspired algorithms in conventional digital CMOS technology. Perspectives on spin-enabled neuromorphic computing, its status, and challenges and future prospects are outlined in this review article.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.030101References

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I have had a few occasions where I wanted to invoke Apex Code by clicking a button on a Page Layout.  Everywhere I looked, it always said I needed to have the button call an s-Control, which would then invoke Apex Code that’s written as a Web Service.  I am doing my best to avoid using s-Controls and figured there had to be a way using Visualforce instead of an s-Control.  The key was the action attribute on the <apex:page tag.

Suppose you wanted to add a button on your Opportunity page that automatically did something when you pushed the button.  You can’t execute Apex Code directly from a button.  You need something in the middle.  Let’s try to do it with a Visualforce page instead of an s-Control.

Controller

The controller has the main method in it to be executed. This method returns a PageReference (very important). Note that the method does not need to be a webservice.

public class VFController { // Constructor - this only really matters if the autoRun function doesn't work right private final Opportunity o; public VFController(ApexPages.StandardController stdController) { this.o = (Opportunity)stdController.getRecord(); } // Code we will invoke on page load. public PageReference autoRun() { String theId = ApexPages.currentPage().getParameters().get('id'); if (theId == null) { // Display the Visualforce page's content if no Id is passed over return null; } for (Opportunity o:[select id, name, etc from Opportunity where id =:theId]) { // Do all the dirty work we need the code to do } // Redirect the user back to the original page PageReference pageRef = new PageReference('/' + theId); pageRef.setRedirect(true); return pageRef; } }
Visualforce

The Visualforce page is very simple. You really don’t need anything in there except the

<apex:page standardController="Opportunity" extensions="VFController" action="{!autoRun}" > <apex:sectionHeader title="Auto-Running Apex Code"/> <apex:outputPanel > You tried calling Apex Code from a button. If you see this page, something went wrong. You should have been redirected back to the record you clicked the button from. </apex:outputPanel> </apex:page>
Custom Button

All we need now is a custom Opportunity button. Because we used the Opportunity standard controller in the Visualforce page, we can simply have the button point to a the page we created.

Add that button to your Page Layout and all should work swimmingly.

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