Research Papers On Developmental Psychology

Investigating The Relationship Between Student Leadership, Identity Formation, And Motivation To Lead In Traditional Undergraduate College Students., Ronald Jackson2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Investigating The Relationship Between Student Leadership, Identity Formation, And Motivation To Lead In Traditional Undergraduate College Students., Ronald Jackson

Scholar Week 2016 - present

This study expanded upon previous research and investigated a possible relationship between the theoretical domains of identity and motivation, and the practical domains of leadership and leadership development, in traditional undergraduate college students, in order to gain insight and recommend improvements to student leadership programing. The researcher used the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ), the Motivation to Lead Scale (MTL), and three non-identifiable demographic questions to compare the data from 299 traditional undergraduates and 138 student leaders at three private universities in the Midwestern United States. A statistically significant difference in the leadership motivations of the student leaders and the ...


Developmental Justice, Darleen Claire Wodzenski2018 Orchard Human Services, Inc.

Developmental Justice, Darleen Claire Wodzenski

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

Explore specific factors contribute to the overwhelming and downward spiraling phenomenon of youth involvement with the Juvenile Justice system. Identify Juvenile Justice crossover, DMC (Disproportionate Minority Contact), and trauma-informed and developmentally responsive engagement to promote youth well-being, lawfulness and good citizenship. Identify strategies, protocols, and practices that prevent Juvenile Justice first contact, reduce DMC, and support successful youth re-entry and successful integration into family and community. Includes introduction to critical mental health, habilitative, and sociocutural factors implicated in Juvenile Justice involvement.


Systemic Perspective Of Conduct Disorder In Adolescents, Charmayne Adams2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Systemic Perspective Of Conduct Disorder In Adolescents, Charmayne Adams

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation explores the systemic nature of conduct disorder and the effect it has on individuals, educational settings, and communities. It address the systemic nature of the diagnosis through Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model and looks at interventions for each layer of the model. This presentation also acknowledges the disproportionate rate of youth-at-risk, especially male youth of color diagnosed with conduct disorder.


Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Within The Contexts Of The Same-Sex Peer Group, Nation, And Group Individualism And Collectivism, Mithra H. Pirooz2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Within The Contexts Of The Same-Sex Peer Group, Nation, And Group Individualism And Collectivism, Mithra H. Pirooz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Adolescence is a period of development during which needs and relationships shift (Sebastian, Burnett, & Blakemore, 2008). Issues of gender also become more salient, and gender identity has been related to different areas of psychosocial adjustment, such as self-esteem (Egan & Perry, 2001). The current study examined predictors of self-esteem among early adolescents in the context of a multilevel model. We considered felt pressure to conform to gender norms, gender typicality, and gender satisfaction as individual-level predictors within the contexts of the same-sex peer group, nation, and group levels of individualism and collectivism. Multilevel modeling was employed to account for nonindependence between ...


Athletes’ Perceptions Of Positive Development Resulting From Canadian Intercollegiate Sport: A Content Analysis, Scott Rathwell, Bradley Young2018 University of Lethbridge

Athletes’ Perceptions Of Positive Development Resulting From Canadian Intercollegiate Sport: A Content Analysis, Scott Rathwell, Bradley Young

The Qualitative Report

Governing bodies of university sport have adopted more holistic approaches to the development of their athletes (Canadian Interuniversity Sport, 2013; NCAA, 2015). To our knowledge, there has been little empirical effort made to describe and assess positive development in the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) context. In this study, we qualitatively examined positive development outcomes associated with athletes’ participation in CIS sport programs. We conducted semi-structured open-ended interviews with 15 student-athletes (5 male, 10 female; Mage = 22, range = 17-26). To analyze the data, we performed a deductive content analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) using positive development categories found within the Youth Experience Survey (YES 2.0; Hansen & Larson, 2005). Athletes discussed positive developmental outcomes consistent with ...


The Development Of Affect And Defense In Childhood And Adolescence, Kari Gray2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Development Of Affect And Defense In Childhood And Adolescence, Kari Gray

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The purpose of this study is to further determine the nature of the relationship between how defense mechanisms affect and are affected by the ways in which feelings are modulated and regulated in children and adolescents. This study has been built upon an IRB-approved research project conducted under primary investigator Steven Tuber, Ph.D. at the Psychological Center and the City College of New York (From Child Assessment to Child Treatment; A Preliminary Investigation). The study data are pre-existing, collected from 5 – 16 year old children and adolescents presenting for treatment and/or assessment at the Psychological Center, a community ...


Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotion regulation (ER) is a key predictor of positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Despite decades of research on discrete ER strategy use, ER may be more appropriately measured in terms of the breadth of emotional range, or the degree to which one can flexibly modulate emotional responses. Yet little is known about ER flexibility in childhood. Also, given the crucial role of caregiver support in children’s emotional lives, ER may be most accurately measured in developmentally appropriate and ecologically valid social contexts. Further, few developmental studies have capitalized on the growing evidence base surrounding biological signatures of ER. This ...


Impact Of Neurodevelopmental Genes On The Trajectory Of Adhd Severity: A Pilot Study, Agnieszka Mlodnicka2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Impact Of Neurodevelopmental Genes On The Trajectory Of Adhd Severity: A Pilot Study, Agnieszka Mlodnicka

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity, and is associated with delays in neural development. To assess the association of genes involved in neurodevelopment with symptoms and trajectory of ADHD, saliva was collected and genotyped from 145 participants from a longitudinal study of preschoolers who were followed annually for 7 years. We examined four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with neurodevelopment: neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; SNP rs3924999), neurotropin-3 (NT-3; SNP rs6489630), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; rs6265), and regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4; rs951439). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that neuregulin-1 ...


Empathy Institutionalized: Sociocultural Dialogue As A Strategic Peacebuilding Initiative, Emily Owens2018 Valparaiso University

Empathy Institutionalized: Sociocultural Dialogue As A Strategic Peacebuilding Initiative, Emily Owens

Bridge/Work

A common adage used in psychological exploration tells us that “If you want to know the end, look at the beginning.” While typically employed to emphasize the importance of upbringing and environment on personal outcomes, this phrase can be equally applicable in examining the ways in which society has developed over time to produce our polarized sociopolitical culture of today. This work explores from an integrative psychosocial perspective the potential that exists in working to define a new “end” by shaping a new “beginning,” through going directly to the institutions that comprise our own beginnings— schools. Through a combined research ...


When Mother's Milk Goes Bad: The Influence Of Location On Breastfeeding Mothers Perceived Levels Of Intelligence, Leslie Dooley2018 Iowa State University

When Mother's Milk Goes Bad: The Influence Of Location On Breastfeeding Mothers Perceived Levels Of Intelligence, Leslie Dooley

Leslie Dooley

This study examined the influence of the location where a mother breastfeeds and the potential stigma associated with breastfeeding on perceptions of her intelligence. Despite public campaigns promoting the benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and infant, breastfeeding rates have been slow to improve. Previous research has found that both men and women feel uncomfortable when a woman breastfeeds in public (Smith, 2011). In addition, many mothers are concerned with the potential for social repercussions from breastfeeding in public (Sheeska, 2001). This study investigated the effect of type of feeding and location on perceptions of maternal intelligence. Participants were randomly ...


Ask Versus Tell: Potential Confusion When Child Witnesses Are Questioned About Conversastions, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon2018 Arizona State University

Ask Versus Tell: Potential Confusion When Child Witnesses Are Questioned About Conversastions, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Children’s potential confusion between “ask” and “tell” can lead to misunderstandings when child witnesses are asked to report prior conversations. The verbs distinguish both between interrogating and informing and between requesting and commanding. Children’s understanding was examined using both field (i.e., Study 1) and laboratory (i.e., Studies 2-4) methods. Study 1 examined 100 5- to 12-year-olds’ trial testimony in child sexual abuse cases, and found that potentially ambiguous use of ask and tell was common, typically found in yes/no questions that elicited unelaborated answers, and virtually never clarified by attorneys or child witnesses. Studies 2-4 ...


Children’S Emotion Regulation And Attachment To Parents: Parental Emotion Socialization As Moderator, Emine Ahmetoglu, Gökçen Ilhan Ildiz, Ibrahim H. Acar, Amy J. Encinger2018 Trakya University

Children’S Emotion Regulation And Attachment To Parents: Parental Emotion Socialization As Moderator, Emine Ahmetoglu, Gökçen Ilhan Ildiz, Ibrahim H. Acar, Amy J. Encinger

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

We examined the associations among parental emotion socialization, and children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. In particular, we examined the moderating role of parental emotion socialization in the relationship between children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. Participants were 78 Turkish children (49 boys) aged from 60 to 77 months and their parents. Parents reported on the socialization strategies they used for their children’s emotions and on their children’s emotion regulation, and we assessed children’s attachment to parents via the Doll Story Completion Task. Results revealed that parents’ minimization reaction to children’s emotions ...


Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell2018 Northwestern University

Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Many of the most significant impairments faced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relate to pragmatic (i.e. social) language. There is also evidence that pragmatic language differences may map to ASD-related genes. Therefore, quantifying the social-linguistic features of ASD has the potential to both improve clinical treatment and help identify gene-behavior relationships in ASD. Here, we apply vector semantics to transcripts of semi-structured interactions with children with both idiopathic and syndromic ASD. We find that children with ASD are less semantically similar to a gold standard derived from typically developing participants, and are more semantically variable. We show ...


The Hold Me Tight Program For Couples Becoming Parents: A Mixed Methods Study, Debbie Wang2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Hold Me Tight Program For Couples Becoming Parents: A Mixed Methods Study, Debbie Wang

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

ABSTRACT

Attachment theory has made substantial contributions to the understanding of close relationships. The purpose of this study was to inquire whether an attachment-informed psychoeducational program is a feasible and effective intervention for couples expecting their first child. The overarching question was: Is an attachment-informed relationship enhancement program, such as Hold Me Tight®(HMT), helpful to couples in strengthening their relationship and increasing their confidence in becoming first-time parents? The research question was addressed using a mixed-methods approach.

In the first phase, the Hold Me Tight® program developed by Dr. Sue Johnson was modified for use with couples becoming parents ...


The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid2018 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Research has consistently linked residual trauma-related shame among child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors to sexual revictimization, health risk behaviors, and poorer response to mental health treatment. However, questions remain regarding the imprint of childhood maltreatment on trauma-related shame including which CSA characteristics or types of childhood maltreatment contribute to residual shame in adulthood. Using data drawn from a prospective study of 174 primarily African American women with histories of CSA and a matched comparison group, this study explores whether specific characteristics of CSA (familial CSA, CSA with penetration, force used by CSA perpetrator), repeat sexual victimization in adolescence, childhood physical ...


All In The Family: The Role Of Sibling Relationships As Surrogate Attachment Figures, Tiffany Lagerstrom2018 Scripps College

All In The Family: The Role Of Sibling Relationships As Surrogate Attachment Figures, Tiffany Lagerstrom

Scripps Senior Theses

While several studies have analyzed the impact of mother-child attachment security on the child’s emotion regulation abilities, few studies have proposed interventions to help children improve emotion regulation abilities in the presence of an insecure mother-child attachment. This current study extends previous findings about the influence of mother-child attachment on the child’s emotion regulation abilities and contributes new research in determining whether an older sibling can moderate this effect. This study predicts that across points of assessments: 18 months, 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years, the quality of mother-child attachment security will influence the child’s performance ...


Adolescent Political Development, Rachel Miller2018 Scripps College

Adolescent Political Development, Rachel Miller

Scripps Senior Theses

The present research is on parent influence on adolescent political development. The study surveys parent political behavior, parent warmth and quality of relationship with their child, and adolescent knowledge of parent political behavior to understand how these factors affect a match in party affiliation in parent and adolescent. 547 family groups are included in the study. I hypothesized that an adolescent’s politics would be more likely to match that of their parent when the parent is politically involved and warm and the adolescent is aware of the parent’s political behavior. This study is important because individuals’ party affiliation ...


Adaptive Behavior Assessment Of Ethnically Different Children Referred For Special Education Services, Kelly C. Moynahan2018 Walden University

Adaptive Behavior Assessment Of Ethnically Different Children Referred For Special Education Services, Kelly C. Moynahan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1 in 6 children are diagnosed with a developmental disability or with developmental delays, which are associated with impairments in physical, language, cognitive, and/or adaptive behaviors. To fill a gap in the literature, the adaptive profile of young children initially served as developmentally delayed (DD) were analyzed to explore adaptive differences between different ethnicities and placement settings of children at the time of the initial referral prior to DD assessment. Archival data included 333 preschool aged children. The independent variables of eligibility status (DD or not DD eligible), ethnicity ...


The Relationship Between Attachment, Self-Regulation, And Resilience In Undergraduate Students' College Adjustment, Scott Tanner2018 Walden University

The Relationship Between Attachment, Self-Regulation, And Resilience In Undergraduate Students' College Adjustment, Scott Tanner

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Difficulty adjusting to college life is noted in nearly 20% of freshmen who fail to return to college. The purpose of this quantitative survey design study, grounded in attachment theory, was to investigate the best predictor (e.g., secure parental attachment, self-regulation, or resilience) of college adaptation, the combined contribution of the variables in predicting college adaptation, and whether a bivariate relationship existed between the variables and subcomponents of college adaptation. The Connor Davidson - Resilience Scale â??Revised, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire, and Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire were securely administered online to a sample of 68 full-time ...


Relationships Between Religious Denomination, Quality Of Life, Motivation And Meaning In Abeokuta, Nigeria, Mary Gloria Njoku, Babajide Gideon Adeyinka2017 Godfrey Okoye University

Relationships Between Religious Denomination, Quality Of Life, Motivation And Meaning In Abeokuta, Nigeria, Mary Gloria Njoku, Babajide Gideon Adeyinka

Journal of Global Catholicism

Inter-disciplinary research that combines methods in psychology of the impact of religious change in Africa and theological approaches has been very scant in Nigeria. This study examines the relationship among religious denominations, quality of life, motivation and meaning in life in Abeokuta metropolis in Ogun State, Nigeria using psychological and religious tools. The study hypothesizes that members of the Roman Catholic denomination would differ from members of the Redeemed Christian Church of God and the Living Faith Church in motivational factors and meaning making.


The roots of developmental psychology stem from the early part of the 20th Century in the seminal work of B.F. Skinner, Jean Piaget, and Erik Erikson, who promulgated theories of behaviorism, constructivism, and psychosocial development, respectively. The latter half of the century saw the rise of constructivism, which compares learning and brain function to the inner workings of computers. The most recent developments in learning theory are multiple intelligences, a theory that attempts to explain the ways in which different individuals learn; and neurophilosophy, which tries to unite neuroscience and previously held theories on learning and brain function.

Keywords Behaviorism; Cognitive Science; Computationalism; Constructivism; Developmental Psychology; Learning Theory; Multiple Intelligences; Neurophilosophy; Neuroscience; Psychosocial Development; Social-Pragmatic Theory

Overview

Developmental psychology is the branch of psychology that studies the intellectual, social and emotional development of preschool and school-aged children. During the earliest years of life, the human brain sees explosive growth and development. Scientists estimate that during this time, a baby's brain consumes 60 % of the body's total energy, compared with an adult brain that on average uses only between 20% and 25% (Brunton, 2007). Research has shown that memory begins not long after birth and matures significantly by the age of six. The development of sight, hearing, and other senses reaches its peak at three months, and at four months babies start distinguishing between the faces of loved ones and strangers ("Inside a Baby's Brain," 2005).

Much has been learned in recent years about brain development during this stage. Babies, it seems, are much more aware of and influenced by their surroundings than was once thought. And the mechanical ways in which the brain processes information - along with how the mind learns - can have a tremendous bearing on a child's intellectual, emotional, and social outcomes. Undoubtedly, understanding brain function and learning can only help adults teach children better. The purpose of this article is to explore the evolution of learning theory and of cognitive science (as an extension of learning theory) since the beginning of the 20th Century. It defines constructivism, behaviorism, psychosocial development and multiple intelligences simply as learning theories, whereas computationalism is (in addition to being a learning theory) an offshoot of cognitive science, as it also examines the inner workings of the brain.

Behaviorism

The roots of behaviorism can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th Century and the close of the Industrial Revolution. Behaviorism was a widely held learning theory for more than a half century, until cognitive science emerged after 1950 (Bush, 2006). While behaviorism concerns itself mainly with changes in an organism's outward behavior as a result of learning, cognitive science tries to "look under the hood" to understand what occurs in the brain during the learning process.

A Harvard-trained psychologist, Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner (1904-1990) is the figure most associated with behaviorism (Bush, 2006). By experimenting with pigeons, Skinner developed his theories on "operant conditioning." Operant conditioning differed from Ivan Pavlov's work in "classical conditioning," which showed that an existing behavior can be changed by associating it with a new stimulus. Studies done by Skinner revealed that through operant conditioning, a desired behavior can be reached by rewarding partial steps toward that behavior (WGBH, 1998). For example, Skinner got pigeons to turn a complete circle in a chosen direction by giving them food rewards every time they turned even partially in that direction. In time, the birds associated the rewards with turning that way and learned to turn completely around before receiving any reward. Skinner extrapolated that humans could be taught complicated tasks in this way. Many computer programs today that enable people to teach themselves use Skinner's reward-for-desired-behavior models (WGBH, 1998).

Unlike most learning theorists who would emerge later, Skinner was uninterested in the psyche and the inner workings of the brain. He was a strict behaviorist: He concerned himself only with how behavior is shaped from without (WGBH, 1998). It was because of this rigidity that he would find his ideas supplanted by new ones. The years following 1950 saw the gradual emergence of cognitive science, which was born of a growing frustration over behaviorism, which concerned itself only with observable phenomena. An increasing amount of research was being done on language and on how the brain processes information (Bush, 2006).

Constructivism

It is widely believed that the single greatest contributor to 20th Century learning theory was Jean Piaget. A Swiss psychologist born in 1896, Piaget began experimenting on his own children in the 1920s. His studies eventually led him to believe that babies less than nine months old have no comprehension of how the world around them functions. Piaget is best known for his "constructivist" theories, which maintain that children must construct concepts of how the world around them works from experience. He discovered, for example, that 9-month-olds cannot grasp "object permanence," the idea that objects and people continue to exist when they are not in view. It is only through accumulated experience that babies come to understand that things and people continue to exist, even when they leave the room (Brunton, 2007).

Piaget broke the mind's inner learning processes into four components: schemata, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium. Schemata are cognitive processes and thought structures used by a child's brain to conceptualize and categorize incoming stimuli, enabling him either to generalize about or make distinctions between particular events. At first, a child tries to assimilate new stimuli into existing schemata. Assimilation is the cognitive process by which a child integrates new stimuli into present schemata, which may expand as a result (Clark, 2005).

When entering stimuli do not match pre-existing concepts, disequilibrium occurs. The mind then tries to accommodate the stimuli and return to equilibrium (Harlow, 2006). Accommodation is when a child's existing schemata change as a result of the assimilation of new stimuli, either by being modified or further developed. When stimuli do not match any existing schemata, new concepts and cognitive processes are invented to assimilate similar stimuli in the future (Clark, 2005). This is the manner in which the environment enters through all of the five senses and is reconstructed as knowledge in the brain, or, as Piaget himself said, "For me, it's quite the contrary of a copy of the world: it's a reconstitution of reality by the concepts of the subject who, progressively and with all kinds of experimental probes, approaches the object without ever attaining it in itself" (cited in Harlow, 2006, p. 45).

Piaget asserted that children pass through four major cognitive developmental stages:

• Sensorimotor: occurs between infancy and 2 years of age. Children acquire knowledge that leads to grasping object permanence and to goal-directed behaviors.

• Preoperational: children, ages 2 to 7 years, show an increasing ability to represent objects in their world using symbols - such as words and numbers - images, and gestures.

• Concrete operational: between 7 and 11, children learn to put objects in logical order - by size, shape, color - and show beginning mastery of not only measurement, but also of time and quantity. During the concrete operational phase, children also use other mental operations, such as object classification and conservation (the understanding that a thing remains essentially the same, even when small changes are made to its appearance or form).

• Formal operational: after age 11, children enter an open-ended phase, during which they begin using logic and abstract thinking and can form new knowledge using information already known. The mind in this stage learns to contemplate what is possible, instead of staying fixed on what already exists (Meece & Defrates-Densch, 2002).

Piaget's findings and conclusions were widely embraced for decades, but since the 1980s critics have begun to doubt some of his theories. They question whether constructivism really explains how children learn and how their minds develop. Some are confused by the term "schemata" and how it relates to what is actually going on in the physical brain.

Some question Piaget's research methods and whether his four stages of cognitive development can be applied universally. Others are skeptical about equilibration and whether it really explains how the mind develops. Still, Piaget's work has largely stood the test of time, as it reveals a great deal about how children of different ages think (Meece & Defrates-Densch).

Constructivist theories would dominate education and psychology until the mid-1980s, when they began to be supplanted by new ideas. Research done by psychologists and scientists produced new information leading to the belief that infants are born already possessing knowledge of their world. These "nativist" theories also maintain that babies arrive with basic tools for learning language and arithmetic (Brunton, 2007).

Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1902. His mother was Danish, and he never knew his biological father. Erikson was cared for lovingly by his mother and a stepfather, but the desire to know more about his real father never left him. It is possible that it was this gap in his own childhood memories that drove Erikson to study children and author his theories of "psychosocial development" ("Erik Erikson," 2001). Though Erikson would never find his real father, the search helped him become a key figure in the study of developmental psychology.

In the early 1920s, Erikson enrolled at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute where he studied Sigmund Freud's theories on human behavior. Eventually he would break from Freud, believing not that biological instinct drives humans (a Freudian tenet), but that social interaction drives us ("Erik Erikson," 2001). In 1933, Erikson immigrated to America and joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School. While also working as a private practitioner of child psychoanalysis, he began developing his own theories. Humans endure eight stages of development, he believed, the first of these occurring during childhood. During each stage, we must resolve a set of inner conflicts arising from demands placed on us as children by our parents and by society. As these conflicts are resolved (or left unresolved), we go to the next stage ("Erik Erikson," 2001).

• Stage one, "trust versus mistrust:" by the time children are one year old, they must learn to trust their environments. When parents and caregivers are loving and nurturing, children learn this trust and feel safe and accepted.

• Stage two, "autonomy versus shame and doubt:" between the ages of 18 months and three years, children want to test their independence and explore the world. When adults fail to indulge this desire -...

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