Jauhar Degree College Gulistan-E-Jauhar Karachi Admissions Essay

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1. D. J. Sindh Government Science College – Science College is an educational institute located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Inaugurated as Sindh Arts College by Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay, on 17 January 1882, Science College upon completion of the present structure on 19 November 1887. Located in the heart of old Karachi, the stone for this college was laid in 1882, by Lord Dufferin. The college is named after Diwan Dayaram Jethmal, its main benefactor, the cost of construction is reported to have been Rs.186,514 out of which the government contributed Rs. 97,193, the balance being raised through public donations, the college has following premises, Main Building is divided into two main part, one new portion has the office of the Principal, office superintendent and clerk offices. In this portion, therere departments of Urdu and Statistics in ground floor, block has only classrooms, they are specially for first year. The is another building on Muhammad bin Qasim Road, behind the main oldest building, it has Main Library, departments of Mathematics and it is opposite to the A. Q. State-of-the-art gymnasium is adjacent to the A. Q, the Principals bungalow is also the one of the oldest building, nowadays, Sindh Textbook Board has occupied this building as camp office. Sport Complex is near the P. I. D. C round about and this complex is used for cricket and football. Admission didnt offer in BSc in the during session 2013-14 to 2014-15 because of shortage of faculty, the college also offers admission in three Bachelor of Computer Science programe, affiliated to University of Karachi. Pre-Independence Mullineux R. Walmsley 1887-1888 Moses John Jackson 1888-1907 H. P Ferrell 1908-1916 A. C Miller 1917-1918 T. M

2. Government College of Commerce & Economics – Government College of Commerce & Economics is one of the premier institutions of commerce education in the city of Karachi. It is located on Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Road, opposite Bagh-e-Jinnah and Pearl Continental Hotel, the college was established on 22 June 1945 under the name of Besantsing Ajumal Advani college of Commerce and Economics, and was inaugurated by Mr. Rao Bahadur Seth Shivrattan G. Mohatta. The college was taken under the supervision of the Government of Sindh in 1948 after the establishment of Pakistan, the current building of the college was constructed in 1967. It was a co-educational institution till 1993 but then separated into two sections for girls and boys

3. Government National College (Karachi) – Government National College, Karachi is a college in Karachi, Pakistan. Government National College, Karachi had the honor of being the first selectee for this program, the school was established from the home of Professor Hasan Adil in Karachi. Prof. Hasan Adil serving as the first head from March 1956 to March 1973, originally the school had co-educated system and a double shift. On 1 September 1972 the Pakistani government nationalised the school, after nationalization Prof. Syed Imtiaz Hussain, Head of Chemistry Department of this College took the charge of Principal. Under his principalship the College playing a role in education of Karachi. In the context of evening classes the name of Dr. Ansar Zahid Khan, the evening shift completely separated and became independent college status, was introduced in 1993 after the Sindh provincial government. In 1996 the Department of Computer Science, under the faculty of Science opened, the first time any government college in Karachi offered that intermediate level. Two years later due to the efforts by Prof. Rashid Hae, Professor Nazir Ahmed, Professor Ilyas Soomro and Senior Superintendent Naseem, the college could introduce Computer Science at B. Sc. level. The campus is between Alamgir Road and Shaheed-e-Millat Road, in the Karachi Memon Co-operative Housing Society, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, the campus of the College extends to an area of 1.75 acres and consists of three blocks, Science, Arts and Commerce. The College has 30 lecture rooms, which are spacious, airy, in front of the main building there are verdant lawns and flowerbeds along the walkways. There is a large, centrally located auditorium named after Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, a renowned educationist, a Muslim reformer, a freedom fighter and the founder of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. A part of the auditorium serves as indoor games like Basketball, Table Tennis, BadmingTon, Snooker, wolyboll, yassu panju, pakran pakrayii, Baraf Panii, oonch neech ka pahar and Kona Kona. The campus library is a building, the upper story of which serves as a place for researchers. The lower story serves as a hall for students. Presently, the library has more than 25,000 books on different subjects, the leading dailies of the country are available in the Reading Hall. The library was equipped with four computers for study purposes. They are loaded with dictionaries and encyclopedias for the students quick reference

4. Sir Syed Government Girls College – Sir Syed Government Girls College is located in Nazimabad at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Sir Syed Girls College is adjacent to 1st Chowrangi, Altaf Ali Barelvi Road, Nazimabad, Sir Syed Government Girls College is considered as one of the most premier educational institutions for girls in Karachi. The school was founded by Syed Altaf Ali Barelvi in 1954 solely to provide education to girls. The college has named as Sir Syed Girls College after the leader Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. The present building of the college was completed in 1963, on September 1972, the college was nationalised and since then named as Sir Syed Government Girls College

5. Commecs College – Commecs College is a higher secondary intermediate school in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Commecs College is a not-for-profit, co-educational institution founded in 1993 by COMMECS, College of Commerce & Economics, by the Commecs Educational Trust. The institute serves as a quality institution for improving the standard of business, Commecs College Jauhar Campus consists of a three-storied building which covers an area of 53,396 square feet for academic pursuits. Extensive open areas are available for sports and extra curricular activities, in addition to basic educational facilities are a prayer room, a conference room, spacious and hygienically clean cafeterias, and separate common rooms for boys and girls. Commecs College was founded in 1994 by Commecs Educational Trust, a not-for-profit organization, the trustees were concerned at the dearth of good educational institutions in the fields of business, science and technology. As its first step, CET established the Commecs Institute of Business Education in 1993, three programmes were offered, Intermediate Commerce B. B. A B. The education standards were set to conform to the vision of the founders, encouraged and motivated by its initial success, CET launched the science discipline in the year 2003 and changed the name of the school to Commecs Institute of Business and Emerging Sciences. With this status IBA-affiliated programmes were discontinued, there had been a persistent demand for Commecs College City campus that could cater to the needs of students living in PECHS, Garden, Defence and other neighbouring localities

6. Defence Authority Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed College – Defence Authority Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed College is an Intermediate level, English-language college in Karachi, Pakistan. The school was established in the building donated by Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan in April 1988, College section moved to its new building in 2002. College section was compressed by moving DA College of Business to its premises, O Level section at SKBZ College was introduced in 2010. SKBZ is one of the original institutions and it provides education from pre-primary up to Intermediate levels. Apart from the curriculum, due emphasis is also laid on sports, co-curricular activities and inculcating strong moral. The college is located at Defence Housing Authority, Khayaban-e-Rahat, Phase-VI near the famous Hot n Spicy, the students of the campus are well known for visiting that fast food place as well as Dunkin Donuts and French Bakery and the school staff try to stop them. The Officially Unofficial Website Official Website

7. Dow Medical College – Dow Medical College is a public medical school located in the city of Karachi, Pakistan. In 2003, it became a constituent college of the newly formed Dow University of Health Sciences, DUHS is launching its web-based Continuing Medical Education Program named the e-CME Program for the Family Physicians. Patients Welfare Association, also known as PWA, is one of the largest and oldest student run volunteer NGO of Pakistan, students of Dow Medical College have been managing it since 1979. The organization serves patients coming to Civil Hospital Karachi, helping them through its Blood Bank, Drug Bank, Thalassemia Services, General, adeebul Hasan Rizvi – Transplant Urologist, philanthropist and head of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation. Rafat Hussain – Deputy Head of the School of Rural Medicine at the University of New England, Australia Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan – Governor of Sindh, shahbudin Rahimtoola - Cardiologist at Mayo Clinic Syed A. Hoda - Professor of Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University. Lubna Ahmad - Board certified in Endocrinology, fellow of the American College of Endocrinology and American College of Physicians, fahad Mirza - Actor and Model Nasira Rubina, MD - Gwinnett Psychiatry. Dr. Abdulaziz Almouhazae - Urologist, Head of medical services in the Saudi National Guard - Eastern Province, director, North Carolina Statewide Telepsychiatry Program. com DUHS e-CME Programme

8. Pakistan Coast Guards – The Coast Guards consisted the active-duty members of Pakistan Army and commanded by one-star rank Brigadier who is headquartered in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. The Coast Guard are charged and mandated with protecting the areas of Balochistan and Sindh Province while it conducts military exercises. The Coast Guards were first established as the Maritime Security Agency in 1971, since then, it has upgraded its facilities and fleet to bolster its capabilities of littoral patrolling of the coast line. The exact number of personnel and equipment held with Coast Guards remains classified, the Pakistan Coast Guards works under administrative control of Ministry of Interior in peace time whereas it will come under operational control of Pakistan Army in wartime situations. The Headquarters with its compliments and PCG Hospital, PCG Battalions are led by commandants with the rank of lieutenant colonel, seconded from the Army. The Battalions are located as follows, 1st Battalion, Uthal 2nd Battalion, Korangi 3rd Battalion, Gwadar 4th Battalion, Pakistan Coast Guards as a whole is spread all over to safeguard coastal belt of 1050 km as well as up to 12 NM Territorial Waters of Pakistan. Marine Wing of PCG is entrusted with the responsibility of 12 NM of territorial waters, the Marine Wing is based at Karachi and commanded by a commander of operation branch, seconded from Pakistan Navy. MW is equipped with Fast Patrol Crafts, lethal Interceptor Boats, MW has full facility to train its men in the relevant fields and able to conduct general and technical cadres. Marine Wing PCG has also established Search and Rescue Centre to safe the precious life in distress, AT Coy is based in Korangi with a Training Wing and is responsible for maintaining horses, camels and cattle for use in the field, as well as a dog section. It is commanded by a captain from the Remount, Veterinary. To keep a check on smugglers and stop their activities of smuggling through the sea routes, PCG Battalions have special check posts all along the coastal belt and also pickets the threatened areas randomly. PCG has been equipped with communication and surveillance equipment, including radars. The Pakistan Coast Guard has in recent years, undertaken greater operations against drug & weapon, the Coast Guard has seen recent successes in combating this issue. Fast Patrol Boats s Interceptor Boats s Speed Boats Jet Ranger Helicopter Maritime Security Agency Law enforcement in Pakistan Official website

9. Jinnah Sindh Medical University – Jinnah Sindh Medical University, formerly known as Sindh Medical College, is a medical university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It gained university status in June 2012, jinnah Sindh Medical University, formerly known as Sindh Medical College, started on April 7,1973 after approval of a committee constituted by the Government of Sindh. Approximately 200 students were admitted to their first year of a MBBS in 1973, khawaja Moin Ahmed was appointed as the first principal of the college. It started with three departments, anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. In later years, a new block was constructed to for departments of pathology, pharmacology, forensic medicine. It also has new museums, laboratories and administration block, the university is fully accredited by the Higher Education Commission and the University Grants Commission. In 2003, Sindh Medical College became a part of the Dow University of Health Sciences and it also shares the curriculum, faculty, and other certain resources with the other affiliated institutions of DUHS, such as DMC and Dow International Medical College

10. Pakistan Steel Cadet College – The Pakistan Steel Cadet College, is a residential educational institution under the management of Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation. Students are admitted in Class 8 till Class 12 and it is located in Steel Township, Bin Qasim Town, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The College prepares the boys for the Secondary School and Intermediate Examinations conducted by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Karachi, there are five Houses or hostels in the college. Sciences, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry Biology and Computer Sciences, Physical training and drill of the students is supervised by the physical fitness and drill instructors. The other staff comprises the Administrative Officer, Bursar, Doctor, Psychologist, Khateeb for the Mosque, games and Physical Education Afternoon games are compulsory for all the students. The School has one Football field, one Hockey field, two Basketball courts, one Squash court, one Cricket/Athletics field, one Gymnasium, and one Swimming Pool. For indoor games like Table Tennis, Carom board, Chess, and Draft and they are also given an orientation in drill for their future careers in the armed forces. Library The Academic Block maintains a central library, in addition, a small library have been established in each House. Computer Labs The College has two laboratories, equipped with P4 computers, multimedia and round the clock internet access. Labs The College also has labs for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, medical The college has a hospital headed by a senior doctor, with staff. For specialized treatment, the boys are sent to the 100-bed hospital adjacent to the town in Gulshan-e-Hadeed. Vaccination and inoculation is carried out periodically, students are medically examined and an individual health record is maintained. The College also has a ward for the segregation of patients suffering from infectious diseases. Clubs Some of the clubs include Aeronautical club, Science Club, Photography Club, Coins collection Club. Recreational Activities Picnics are arranged and the boys are taken to recreational spots around Karachi, educational visits are part of the training schedule at the college. College magazine The College Magazine is published annually in two sections and contains articles and essays written by the students, every student is given a copy on payment. All the ex-cadets are known as Hadeedians

11. Sindh Muslim Law College – The Sindh Muslim Government Law College or S. M. Law College is located on Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Road, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The college was established by its first Principal Hassanally A. Rahman, after the closure of Shahani Law College, the college shifted to its present building in 1948 and is affiliated with the University of Karachi. S M Law College has one of the oldest Law Library in Pakistan, the Library holds over 50,000 volumes, the core of which is a comprehensive range of legal materials for the practitioner and law student. Barrister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Prof. Muhammad Humayoon B

12. Bahria College Karachi – Bahria College Karachi, commonly abbreviated as BCK, is a college in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Bahria College was founded by the Pakistan Navy, the college offers education till College Level. College is being affiliated with Karachi Board, CIE and Federal Board, Karachi Board is only being followed till Fsc Level. The foundation of this college was laid on 30 August 1986 by Admiral I. A, sirohey NI, S. Bt. the then Chief of Naval Staff. In 1995, the Cambridge Section of the college was formed, later, Advanced Level courses of the Cambridge University were introduced. Each section is headed by a vice principal, sidra Batool Mikaal Zulfiqar Bahria College at Islamabad Bahria College Karsaz Bahria College

13. Karachi – Karachi is the capital of Sindh, and is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan, as well as the 7th largest in the world and the worlds second most populous city proper. Ranked as a world city, the city is Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is also Pakistans most cosmopolitan city, though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as a village named Kolachi that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with a population of 400,000. Immediately following the independence of Pakistan, the population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan. Karachi is now Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre, the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistans tax revenue, and generates approximately 20% of Pakistans GDP, approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachis ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistans foreign trade. Approximately 90% of the corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachis workforce is employed in the informal economy, Karachi is one of Pakistans most secular and socially liberal cities. It is also the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan, Karachi is considered to be one of the worlds fastest growing cities, and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is also home to over 2 million Bangladeshi migrants,1 million Afghans, the citys murder rate in 2015 had decreased by 75% compared to 2013, and kidnappings decreased by 90%, with the improved security environment triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi, the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slayed a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it. The citys inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, in 711 C. E. Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the Arabs as Debal. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg the Mughal administrator of Sindh, development of coastal Sindh, under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh

14. Pakistan Navy Engineering College – The Pakistan Navy Engineering College is an accredited research college operated by the Pakistan Navy. The school offers fellowships and research through the Pakistan Science Foundation at the postdoctoral level, the student body and the faculty consist of both civilians and naval officers. The Air Force Institute of Aviation Technology served as the same purpose, the Pakistan Army also operates College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering and Military College of Engineering also is counterpart of this institution. Previously, the school was referred to as PNS Jauhar but it gained accreditation and was renamed as Navy Engineering College by the Pakistan government. The Pakistan Navy felt a need of establishing the science and engineering school to manage its engineering, therefore, Defence Minister Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan signed Naval Order, establishing the school of naval engineering at Karachi. Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan took personal initiatives to establish the school, in 1966, Admiral Khan gained the status of OTS and helped the school to upgrade to that of a college and given the name of Pakistan Navy Engineering College. In the most 1960s, the faculty was employed by Ministry of Defence. In 1977, the affiliation of PNEC was transferred to NED University of Engineering, during this time, the military members of Navy and other branches continued to attend the college while civilians taught courses. The PNEC was shifted to its present location in 1982 and commissioned as PNS Jauhar as an independent unit of Pakistan Navy, the college awarded separate degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering up till 2010. Following the worldwide standard, the courses have been merged, the primary role of PNEC is to produce navy engineers for the Pakistan Navy and the government of Pakistan. To achieve this, it conducts degree courses in the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical and Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, and as of today, programs courses in the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering. Since 1987, civilian students have also been enrolled in courses each year. These include courses on Marine Engineering, Weapon Systems Management, and Weapons Engineering Systems, the college achieved ISO9001 certification in May 1999 as per 1994 standard. In June 2002, the college shifted to the new quality standards for instance and it was the first college to gain ISO9001,2000 certification in Asia. The university offers undergraduate, and graduate programs, while the above courses are open to all students, the following courses are offered to officers of the Navy exclusively. Marine Engineering Systems Management Course Weapon Engineering Systems Management Course Certain courses are offered to officers of allied countries. These are, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Oman, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Malaysia, the new building will increase the on-campus student accommodation capacity manifold. Unlike most Pakistani universities, students at PNEC are required to wear uniforms and maintain a level of discipline which is kept in check with a system of fines

15. Education in Pakistan – Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 3 to 16 years. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law. The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels, Preschool, primary, middle, high, intermediate, the literacy rate ranges from 96% in Islamabad to 28% in the Kohlu District. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex, in tribal areas female literacy is 9. 5%. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with more than 92 million Pakistanis having a command over the English language, on top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world, only 87% of Pakistani children finish primary school education. The standard national system of education is inspired from the British system. Pre-school education is designed for 3–5 years old and usually consists of three stages, Play Group, Nursery and Kindergarten, after pre-school education, students go through junior school from grades 1 to 5. This is followed by middle school from grades 6 to 8, at middle school, single-sex education is usually preferred by the community, but co-education is also common in urban cities. The curriculum is usually subject to the institution, the eight commonly examined disciplines are Urdu, English, mathematics, arts, science, social studies, Islamic studies and sometimes computer studies. Provincial and regional languages such as Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and others may be taught in their respective provinces, some institutes give instruction in foreign languages such as Turkish, Arabic, Persian, French and Chinese. The language of instruction depends on the nature of the institution itself, as of 2009, Pakistan faces a net primary school attendance rate for both sexes of 66 percent, a figure below estimated world average of 90 percent. Pakistans poor performance in the sector is mainly caused by the low level of public investment. Public expenditure on education has been 2.2 percent of GNP in recent years, in addition, the allocation of government funds is skewed towards higher education, allowing the upper income class to reap majority of the benefits of public subsidy on education. Lower education institutes such as primary schools suffer under conditions as the lower income classes are unable to enjoy subsidies. As a result, Pakistan has one of the lowest rates of literacy in the world, Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. After end of each of the years, students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate. Upon completion of grade 9, students are expected to take a standardised test in each of the first parts of their academic subjects and they again give these tests of the second parts of the same courses at the end of grade 10

16. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa – Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country. It was formerly known as North-West Frontier Province and commonly called Sarhad and its provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar, followed by Mardan. It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west, Gilgit–Baltistan to the northeast, Azad Kashmir, Islamabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa does not share a border with Balochistan, which lies to its southwest. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares a border with Afghanistan, connected through the Khyber Pass. It is also the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, the ruins of its capital, Pushkalavati, and the most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi. It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians, Greeks, Mauryans, Kushans, Shahis, Ghaznavids, Mughals, Afghanistan, Sikhs, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy though it is geographically the smallest of four. It comprises 10. 5% of Pakistans economy, and is home to 11. 9% of Pakistans total population, with the majority of the inhabitants being Pashtuns, Hazarewal, Chitrali. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means Khyber side of the land of Pakhtuns while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means Land of Pakhtuns and according to scholars it means Pakhtun culture. When the British established it as a province, they called it North West Frontier Province due to its location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After independence of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pakhtun nationalist party and their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but that is not the case for Pashtun people. Major political parties especially Pakistan Muslim League were against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khans demand of separate nation Pashtunistan. The ancient Aryan Migration is believed to have taken place around 2000 BCE, darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued the races dwelling west of the Indus, Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government. The satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes invasion of Greece in 480 BCE, in the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander then dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwas Bajaur. Alexander then made Embolima his base, after Alexanders death in 323 BCE Porus obtained possession of the region, but was murdered by Eudemus in 317 BCE. Eudemus then left the region, and with his departure Macedonian power collapsed, sandrocottus, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, then declared himself master of the province. His grandson, Ashoka, made Buddhism the dominant religion in ancient Gandhara, after Ashokas death the Mauryan empire collapse, just as in the west the Seleucid power was rising

17. Punjab, Pakistan – Punjab, is Pakistans second largest province by area after Balochistan, and its most populous province with an estimated population of 101,391,000 as of 2015. It is bordered by Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as the regions of Islamabad Capital Territory and it also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a centre of Pakistan where the countrys cinema industry. Punjab has been inhabited since ancient times, the Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa. Punjab features heavily in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, in 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab. The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE, Punjab was later invaded by Tamerlane, Babur, and Nader Shah. Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, following a successful rebellion, Sikh-led armies claimed Lahore in 1759. The administration of the Sikh Empire was based out of Lahore, the province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition. Punjab is Pakistans most industrialised province with the industrial sector making up 24% of the gross domestic product. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its prosperity, and has the lowest rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces. Punjab is also one of South Asias most urbanized regions with approximately 40% of people living in urban areas and its human development index rankings are high relative to the rest of Pakistan. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its relatively liberal social attitudes, the province has been strongly influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi shrines spread across Punjab which attract millions of devotees annually. The founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, was born in the Punjab town of Nankana Sahib near Lahore, Punjab is also the site of the Katasraj Temple, which features prominently in Hindu mythology. Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the excavations at Taxila. The region was known to the Greeks as Pentapotamia, meaning the region of five rivers. The word Punjab was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj and āb, thus meaning the five rivers, similar in meaning to the Greek name for the region. The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River, of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistans Punjab province. Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks

18. Sindh – Sindh /sɪnd/ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is locally known as the Mehran. It was formerly known as Sind until 1956, Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north, Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindhs climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters, the provincial capital of Sindh is Pakistans largest city and financial hub, Karachi. Sindh has Pakistans second largest economy with Karachi being its capital hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a portion of Pakistans industrial sector. The remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, and produces fruit, food consumer items, Sindh is also the centre of Pakistans pharmaceutical industry. Sindh is known for its culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees, Sindh also has Pakistans highest percentage of Hindu residents. Karachi and other centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Historical Monuments at Makli, and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro, the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit language and is adapted from the Sanskrit term Sindhu which literally means river hence a reference to Indus River. Spelling of its name as Sind was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, the ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh. When the British arrived in the 17th century in India, then ruled by the Maratha Empire, they applied the Greek version of the name Sindh to all of South Asia, calling it India. The name of Pakistan is actually an acronym in which the letter s is derived from the first letter in Sindh, Sindhs first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh, currently in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh and this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment and this was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world

19. Islamabad – Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory. The city is the seat of Pakistan and is administered by the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation. Islamabad is located in the Pothohar Plateau in the part of the country. The region has historically been a part of the crossroads of Punjab, Islamabad was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistans capital. The city is known for the presence of several parks and forests, including the Margalla Hills National Park, the city is home several landmarks, including the Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest in the world. Other landmarks include the Pakistans National Monument and Democracy Square, Islamabad is a gamma+ world city, it is categorised as very high on the Human Development Index, the highest in the country. The city has the highest cost of living in Pakistan, and its population is dominated by middle, the city is home to sixteen universities, including the Quaid-e-Azam University and NUST. The city is one of the safest in Pakistan, and has a surveillance system with 1,900 CCTV cameras. The name of the city, Islamabad is derived from two words, Islam and abad, meaning City of Islam, Islam is an Arabic word which refers to the religion of Islam and -abad is a Persian place name that means inhabited place or city. Islamabad Capital Territory, located on the Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab region, is considered one of the earliest sites of settlement in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have found on the plateau. Rudimentary stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial period, items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found. Excavations have revealed evidence of a prehistoric culture, one end of the Indus Valley Civilization flourished here between the 23rd and 18th centuries BC. Later the area was a settlement of the Aryan community. A Buddhist town once existed in the region, many great armies such as those of Zahiruddin Babur, Genghis Khan, Timur and Ahmad Shah Durrani used the corridor through Islamabad on their way to invade the rest of the Indian Subcontinent. Modern Islamabad is based on the old settlement known as Saidpur, the British took control of the region from the Sikhs in 1849 and built South Asias largest cantonment in the region. When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the port city of Karachi was its first national capital. In the 1960s, Islamabad was constructed as a capital for several reasons

20. Madrassas in Pakistan – Madrassas of Pakistan are Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as Madaris-e-Deeniya in Urdu. Most Madrasas teach mostly Islamic subjects such as Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh, Arabic Language, but include some non-Islamic subjects, estimates of the number of madrasas vary between 12,000 and 40,000. In some areas of Pakistan they outnumber the underfunded public schools, most madrassas in Pakistan are Sunni, follow the doctrine of the Deobandi sect and have help propagate what was a minority interpretation of Islam in Pakistan. An estimated 4-10% madrassas serve the minority Shia population, additionally there are a number of Quran academies offering diplomas in Islamic courses. The madaris rose as colleges of learning in the Islamic world in the 11th century and they catered not only to the religious establishment, though that was the dominant influence over them, but also the secular one. To the latter they supplied physicians, administrative officials, judges, the expansion was due both to the growth of Pakistans population and active government programmes geared towards promoting a specific culture and ideology. Major elements sought to promote the indigenous culture originally taught in the madaris in Pakistan, during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, Afghan government officials often supported jihad activities in various madrassa schools in northern Pakistan. After the September 11,2001 attacks on the United States, former Pakistani president Gen. Musharraf tried to introduce an element of nominal control as an overture to American pressure, which have by and large been considered a failure. Estimates of the numbers of madrassas vary, but all agree their number has grown enormously, having expanded greatly during, according to The News International, in 1947 there were only 189 madrassas in Pakistan but over 40,000 by 2008. According to David Commins their number grew from around 900 in 1971 to over 8000 official ones, in 2002 the country had 10, 000-13,000 unregistered madrassas with an estimated 1.7 to 1.9 million students, according to Christopher Candland. According to the New York Times, as of 2009 there more than 12,000 registered madrasas, in some areas of Pakistan they outnumber the underfunded public schools. Mastery of these subjects qualifies a student to become an Islamic scholar or cleric, other Saudi madrassas, particularly schools in Afghan refugee camps, may provide an interpretation of Islam that blends Pushtun ideals and Deobandi views, precisely the hallmark of the Taliban. The madrassas have been called the only option for the majority of Pakistani families to provide education for their sons. Camaraderie instead of chaos, for middle class Pakistanis. In some areas of Pakistan they outnumber the underfunded public schools. “Graduates” of the madrassas are supposedly either retained as teachers for the generation of recruits, or are sent to a sort-of postgraduate school for jihadi training. ”After the September 11,2001 attacks on the United States. Musharraf tried to introduce an element of nominal control, two laws were passed, one to create state-controlled madrassas, the other to register and control them. The first had success, as some religious institutions registered in 2003 with the Pakistan Madrasah Education Board created by this law

21. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan

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