Although many in the aerobatic community are moving swiftly to trade in their biplanes for monoplanes, there are still those of us who relish the attributes of a mature biplane design. The Skybolt is just such an airplane. It possesses many of the basic features a biplane is chosen for, and with some further development, it can become a solid performer in both competition and airshows.
Our Skybolt 300 was created with all of the latest available technology and the results are outstanding. The advantages of the monoplane can clearly be seen in aircraft like the Sukhoi SU-29 and Extra 300. Many times I have compared our Skybolt to the Extra 300 as they are similar in size and powered by the same 300-hp Lycoming engine. (See Table 1.) As you can see, the Skybolt empty weight is 75 pounds lighter than the Extra 300 even with the additional weight of a metal propeller. The Extra 300 and Skybolt 300 have similar performance. But I will concede that the Extra's seating and visibility are much better than in the Skybolt.
Starting with a Model
I got excited about the Skybolt some years ago when my uncle built and flew a one-fifth-scale R/C model of it. Flying qualities were exceptional. The control response was smooth and it was very easy to fly, and I wondered if the full-scale version flew similarly.
Later I flew Dean Hall's fabulous Skybolt, and I was hooked. In 1989 I sold my EAA Biplane and went searching for a partially completed Skybolt. What makes the Skybolt even more appealing is its large size, which is perfect for airshow work. For the last few years I had considered the possibility of getting into this exciting area of flying, and with a Skybolt I could get serious.
While attending airshows in the past, I have overheard several airshow spectators comment on the difficulty of determining the attitude and orientation of the smaller biplanes. The Skybolt would solve that problem, but it would require aerodynamic and control modifications to improve its agility to the standard set by the monoplanes.
This Skybolt was built as a partnership with a coworker, Scott Runyan. His part in the project was mostly financial, but he did contribute to the construction as often as he could. At the beginning of the project I was on temporary assignment in Yuma, Arizona. Scott remained in Long Beach, California, and his help included a lot of time driving to Yuma. George Solsten was the originator of our Skybolt, having started his Skybolt project in 1978 at Flaybob Airport. Scott and I met George in the spring of 1990. George, age 76 at the time, lost his medical, but it took some coaxing to convince him to let us have a shot at finishing his airplane. We worked out a financial settlement and left a down payment.
George was a machinist, and as part of the deal, he agreed to help make any parts we might need. But George was not to share in the completion of the Skybolt. On the day we arrived to make the final payment, Scott and I were told that while on his way to the airport, George was killed when his car was struck head on by a drunk driver. George was a meticulous craftsman and the work done on the Skybolt was exceptional. He had completed the basic fuselage structure, the wing assembly, and had started on the sheet metal work.
In effect, this left us with a kit version of the Skybolt. We were a little intimidated by George's high standard of quality, and admiring his craftsmanship gave us a new goal. We vowed to do our best to finish the Skybolt to the same standards.
Maximizing the Term "Experimental"
All modifications were carefully considered to extract the maximum advantages with a minimum of additional weight. The most significant modification was to increase the aileron area by 50%.
This seemingly minor modification created a domino effect. First, it necessitated increasing the tensional rigidity of the wing. We did this by changing the wing's leading edge to plywood and gluing it to the front spar, creating a rigid D-tube. In addition, the rib bays of both wings at the I-struts were boxed in to further increase tensional rigidity. Along the remainder of the wing, stringers and plywood sheeting were added from the front spar on the upper surface to the 55% chord point. This was done to eliminate airfoil deformities due to fabric loading under high G conditions, thus increasing the G-to-buffet margin by 22%.
We sheeted only the upper surface because the positive-G excursions are larger than the negative. The wing, as you can see from the photos, almost looks like a composite.
To combat the fabric/paint fatigue damage inherent with larger engines, we added false ribs to the upper wing bottom surface inside the propeller arc. The lower wing bottom surface is plywood sheeted in the same area.
The ailerons retain the Frise design but have been recontoured with balsa fillers. The section thickness of the aileron was increased 8% by changing the top surface only, thus making it thicker than the wing section immediately in front of the aileron hinge. Tuft testing has shown greatly improved airflow attachment with this modification.
The aileron end ribs were filled to reduce the gap between the aileron and wing. A new inboard hinge was added to each aileron to distribute the loads.
When flying Dean Hall's Skybolt, I noted that the plans-built aileron forces were pleasantly light but lacked a sufficient center feel for point rolls. To remedy this on our airplane, the ailerons' trailing edge was changed to a blunt configuration that is 3/8-inch thick. Although we achieved excellent roll acceleration and rates, the resulting increased stick forces are enough that spades were required to bring the ailerons back the original light feel.
Our Skybolt is powered by a 300-hp Lycoming IO-540-K1G5D. With headers and some mild tuning, it now puts out about 330 hp. This is the dual magneto/dual oil cooler version. It has a unique accessory case that enabled us to use a very short (10-inch) mount. We have no recesses in our firewall and are able to remove and service all of the accessories without pulling the engine.
Our engine was removed from a Piper Lance. During the removal we took photos to be used for reinstalling the engine on the Skybolt exactly the way it came off. The nosebowl is the standard Firebolt version from Starfire Aviation. It's a little pricey but well worth the cost. The inverted oil system on our airplane is also unique in that we still use standard oil pickup with the inverted system. I am surprised no one has tried this yet on the "cookie sheet" oil sumps. So far we have had great results in all flight phases. (Most installations use a welded boss on one side of the sump.) Engine temperatures are regulated by a cowl flap at the base of the firewall. The tight engine installation gave some concern during the building stage. However, it has proven to be very satisfactory.
The Firebolt mods by Mac's design can add substantially to the speed of any Skybolt. The Marquart/Stinson gear is a little heavy, and so is the canopy arrangement, but both are worth the extra speed. The canopy has given us a great appreciation for the durability inherent in Mac's. We have given hundreds of rides and have had no problems getting people into and out of the Skybolt with no harm to the airplane.
Most homebuilts tend to be on the fragile side and when exposed to the general public, they suffer. The airplane can be flown with the canopy open up to 4 inches. The wingwalk areas of our Skybolt are cleverly hidden under the fabric. Instead of the usual black nonskid paint on the wing surface, we installed a serrated plywood panel under the wingwalk area and doubled the fabric covering over it. This is small potatoes as far as drag reduction is concerned, but it works well and gets rid of a common eyesore. Only time will tell if the fabric will hold up against the abuse.
To further prove our insanity, we installed flush fasteners on the fuselage and fabricated fairings for every appendage. Normally one does not consider a biplane worthy of drag reduction, but we needed to improve the Skybolt's acceleration and close the gap between normal level flight speeds and vertical maneuver entry speeds.
The cockpit is Spartan. Both front and rear have a minimum of instrumentation, flooring and amenities with the exception of cabin heat. Because we lack an interior, the noise level is high, and in the future we intend to address that. If I were to build another Skybolt, I would modify the seating to add more rake to the seat backs and more seat pan area for thigh support. Up to this point all the biplanes have similar seating, which at best is poor. We really need to start designing planes from the inside out.
More Important Stuff
The remaining important contributor to the Skybolt's construction was my wife, Linda. We weren't yet married as I began this project, and I became convinced that if any woman could love me through such a period of selfish reclusion, I had better take a closer look at the possibility of matrimony. So, during a long dusty drive across the hot Arizona desert, towing Skybolt parts to Yuma, I proposed.
Timing might have been a bit inopportune, but after a long pause, she looked over from the seat of the truck, wiped back the sweat and faintly mumbled those unforgettable words: "Well... OK."
Ah, the beginning of true romance. A man in a pickup truck, towing an airplane, and a new promise for the future. We were married aboard a McDonnell Douglas MD-11.
Linda shared my joy each time I clawed at the gate of our condo when the UPS van parked out front. There is only the childhood anticipation of Christmas that can compare to the experience of finally receiving a new Aircraft Spruce order.
The ritual was repeated each week until the Skybolt was finished. I miss those days.
The Paint Controversy
Our Skybolt's paint scheme has been a subject of controversy. I can at least give you some insight into the thinking behind the two years it took to finalize it. First, since we intended to do airshow work, we wanted a bright, colorful design. We also wanted to break from tradition and use some modern colors, yet retain some conservatism that has been generally found in aviation paint designs.
Our best sources for ideas were the sport truck and boating magazines. In addition, a trip to your local R/C model field will confirm that many model airplane paint schemes contrast colors to aid in the pilot's ability to distinguish attitude and position. We wanted to afford the airshow spectator the same consideration.
For example, when our Skybolt is in a rolling maneuver, the contrasting light-colored bottom and dark top gives good attitude awareness, and the red wingtips add a fluid consistency. Our Skybolt has been likened to a clash between a Navaho Indian blanket and a Nike tennis shoe. But an astute observer will notice that the design on the wings is not feathers, but a red-on-blue fade transition that is pulled apart like a puzzle. Look closely!
The covering is the Poly-Fiber process up through the white Aerothane base coat. Fabric is the new 2x2 style. The colors are PPG DBU base coat with clear Durathane over the entire airplane. The DBU base coat is great due to its 20-minute drying time, which allowed the color coats to go on quickly.
I think this is the first time this system has been used on a fabric airplane. The shine is incredible and conjures up questions on whether the paint is dry. It has the appearance of being laid on heavy, but is only two coats of very thin base coat and two coats of clear. If anyone has experience with the DBU/DU process, I would like to know about long term results. It sure is an easy way to paint.
Interested in Performance?
The Skybolt weighed 1395 pounds empty with a minimum of instrumentation. To save more weight, we have no gyro instruments and no extensive avionics. Only a King KX 155 navcom and KT 76A transponder are mounted below the panel. Surprisingly, the Skybolt will top out at 214 mph in level flight. Cruise speed at 75% power at 6500 feet is 202 mph (176 knots) at fuel consumption of 18 gph, but we usually chose a more reasonable 186 mph at 60% power for 13 gph. To save fuel, we do most of our acrobatic practicing from 5000 to 8000 feet and 60% power. At the lower altitudes and high power settings, the Skybolt will reward the uninhibited with a vertical four-point roll, plus one aileron roll and still cap off at the top. The roll rate is timed at 320°/second. We have set the VNE at 240 mph (208 knots) and routinely zoom past the 200-mph mark during practice.
All control surfaces are mass balanced for flutter protection, but the elevator balance has caused an unusual stick force anomaly: During spins the stick will go hard over (full aft if upright or full forward if inverted), and a small force is required to center the stick for recovery. We have discovered the cause of this and will eventually incorporate a fix.
Scott and I are both very happy to be finished with the Skybolt (so are our wives), and we are both practicing as often as money permits. We would be happy to share any information we learned about the Skybolt with anyone else building one. It would seem a tragedy to waste everything we learned to long term memory loss.
SKYBOLT PLANS are available from Steen Aero Lab for $165. Contact the company at 1451 Clearmont St. NE, Palm Bay FL 32905; call 321/725-4160. An info pack costs $10. [Address updated from original article ed]
It's been almost a year since this article was written. Since then, quite a saga has unfolded around us with the Skybolt as the centerpiece.
The biggest thrill was to receive one of the coveted Plans Built Champion trophies at Oshkosh '94. This was completely unexpected since by then, our Skybolt had been subjected to an abusive 150 hours of hard acrobatic practice and was definitely not typical of the pampered showplane examples around us. I commend the Judges for their ability to appreciate details beyond the surface.
The Skybolt also won first place awards at Merced and Copperstate.
Getting to and from Oshkosh from Long Beach was an adventure in itself. We flew formation off the wing of a friend's Turbo Comanche. The disappointed owner had to run his turbos to keep up with us. Since then we have passed Mooneys, Bonanzas, a few twins and a Staggerwing Beech. The Staggerwing was a little tough, though; we were indicating 210 mph as we slowly overtook a beautiful candy apple red example. I had no idea they were that fast.
The Skybolt provided an even greater adventure during a coast-to-coast trip from Long Beach, California, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, with photographer John Getsy. Along the way we gave rides to other Skybolt builders. Many got pumped up with enthusiasm and went on uncontrolled building sprees.
In Virginia -- my home state -- I offered rides to any relatives willing to go. One never knows how many relatives he truly has until showing up with an offer like that. Aviation awareness in my family has reached an all-time high. The return flight took us through Texas during the October floods of 1994. We spent four days in Houston dealing with low IFR, floods, floating fire-ants, snakes, a tornado and a hotel fire -- enough fun, fear and education to fill a separate article.
Once in the Skybolt we were warm and dry, which is more than I can say for all the Stearman pilots departing their annual fly-in at the same time -- at 100 mph and in an open cockpit. You can only take so much character building.
Our Skybolt is now part of the family. It is a tremendous source of fun and adventure for Scott and me. We share it with others by giving rides to those who may never get a similar opportunity. We display it at West Coast fly-ins, and we've recently provided airshow performances for groups raising money for charity such as the Young Eagles. The Skybolt is a crowd-pleaser wherever it appears. Airshow fans rave over the paint scheme and visibility during the aerobatic displays. It is a big airplane and many are surprised by its agility.
The bottom line: We're delighted with our Skybolt and plan to keep it a long, long time.
WE.177 nuclear bomb at the
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|In service||September 1966–1998|
|Used by||British Armed Forces:|
*Royal Air Force
|Designer||Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE), Aldermaston|
|Manufacturer||Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE), Aldermaston|
|Variants||WE.177A, WE.177B, WE.177C|
|Weight||WE.177A: 272 kilograms (599.7 lb),|
WE.177B: 457 kilograms (1,007.5 lb),
WE.177C: 457 kilograms (1,007.5 lb)
|Length||WE.177A: 112 inches (284.5 cm),|
WE.177B: 133 inches (337.8 cm),
WE.177C: 133 inches (337.8 cm)
|Diameter||all: 16 inches (40.6 cm),|
|Filling||WE.177A: ZA297 primary fission warhead,|
WE.177B: ZA297 primary fission warhead & PT176 secondary thermonuclear fusion warhead,
WE.177C: ZA297 primary fission warhead & PT176 secondary thermonuclear fusion warhead,
|Blast yield||WE.177A: 0.5 kilotons or 10 kilotons|
WE.177B: 450 kilotons
WE.177C: 200 kilotons
The WE.177, originally known as WE 177, and sometimes incorrectly known as WE177, was the military designation of a range of aircraft delivered tactical and strategic gravity free-fall nuclear bombs made available to and deployed by two services of the British Armed Forces; namely the Royal Navy (RN) and the Royal Air Force (RAF). WE.177 was created at the request of the British Air Ministry to meet the Operational Requirement OR.1177, and one variant entered service in 1966, initially with only the Royal Air Force.
There were three versions; WE.177A was a boosted fission weapon, while WE.177B and WE.177C were thermonuclear weapons. All could be delivered by fixed-wing aircraft, and also, in the case of the WE.177A, in anti-submarine mode, by helicopters and by the Ikara missile system. All types could be parachute retarded.
The first version to be fully deployed, the WE.177B, was delivered to the Royal Air Force (RAF) at RAF Cottesmore in September 1966, followed by deliveries of the WE.177A to the Royal Navy (RN) beginning in 1969, and the RAF in 1971, after a delay caused by the need to produce the ET.317 warhead for the UK Polaris A3T first; and was followed by WE.177C deliveries to the RAF. The Navy weapons were retired by 1992, and all other weapons with the RAF were retired by 1998. When it was finally withdrawn in 1998, the WE.177 had been in service longer than any other British nuclear weapon.
The WE.177 was the last nuclearbomb in service with the Royal Air Force, and the last tactical nuclear weapon deployed by the United Kingdom (UK).
In May 1960, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan signed an agreement with President Eisenhower to purchase 144 AGM-48 Skybolt missiles for the UKs V bomber force. Along with the missiles, the UK would receive the design of the Skybolt's W59 warhead, which was much smaller and lighter than even the smallest UK designs of the era. The UK version would be known by the codename RE.179.
However, the W59 primary used a polymer-bonded explosive; codenamed PBX-9404, and was considered by the British to be unsafe, due to the potential for shocks to set off the PBX. Since the late 1950s, they had been working on their own primary design, originally 'Octopus', and then 'Super Octopus', that used more explosive and less fissile material, and was shock-insensitive as well. They proposed adapting the Super Octopus design for use in RE.179, calling the new version 'Cleo'. Cleo designs were tested underground at the Nevada Test Site in 1962. The secondary (or fusion elements) of RE.179 remained identical to the W59's, and were known as 'Simon' in WE.177B, and as 'Reggie' in the ET.317 version for UK Polaris.
At the time, the UK's only tactical nuclear weapon was Red Beard, a relatively large weapon of 2,000 pounds (907 kg) weight. While work continued on Cleo, it was decided to adapt it as a weapon of its own to replace Red Beard, as the 'Improved Kiloton Weapon'. The adapted version of the primary, now the only part of the physics package, became 'Katie'. Katie would be used in a new bomb casing to produce WE.177A, replacing Red Beard with a weapon of roughly 1/3 the weight, and much smaller size. WE.177A would also be used by the Royal Navy, both for surface attack, as well as a nuclear depth bomb, or NDB.
When AGM-48 Skybolt was cancelled, part of the resulting Nassau Agreement was the replacement of Skybolt with the Polaris missile. Polaris A3T used its own warhead design, W58. The W58 was also rejected by the British because it also used PBX-9404 in its primary. The UK solution was to adapt their RE.179 for the UK Polaris, and assigned the codename ET.317. The need for ET.317 warheads for UK Polaris was urgent, and development of the Improved Kiloton Bomb was temporarily halted until the Polaris warhead programme was completed.
To fill the gap until Polaris entered service, it was necessary to provide RAF strategic bombers with a suitable weapon that would allow them to penetrate Warsaw Pact defences at low-level, minimising attrition from air defences. WE.177 was adapted to produce a high-yield interim strategic weapon for the five-year period, while the Polaris submarine force was building. Halting work on the original WE.177, now known as the 'A' model, a new version that used the W59 secondary, codenamed Simon, matched with a modified 'Katie B' primary created WE.177B. This version required a lengthened bomb casing, and was somewhat longer and heavier than WE.177A.
The original Polaris blunt-bodyre-entry vehicle had a relatively slow (subsonic) terminal velocity, and as anti-ballistic missile systems became an area of active study, it seemed that it would be particularly vulnerable to attack. There were also concerns that ET.317 could be destroyed by a nearby nuclear explosion, whose X-rays could potentially damage the electronics in the trigger (Jennie), and whose neutron burst could cause the primary to 'fizzle' in a partial criticality. These problems led to the development of the Chevaline system to improve the warhead's chance of avoiding ABMs, along with a new 'super-hardened' primary (Harriet) that would be more resistant to radiation.
A side-effect of this conversion was a reduction in warheads per missile; from three to two, the extra space being used by the Chevaline's decoys. As the Chevaline upgrade was carried out, the now-redundant third warheads were adapted into the new WE.177C. This conversion consisted of removing the original primary, and replacing them with Katie A from the WE.177As. The new warhead was placed in existing WE.177B casings, and then ballasted to have identical weight and ballistics as the WE.177B.
Deployment and usage
Type A, B and C weapons were carried by strike aircraft, including the Avro Vulcan,de Havilland Sea Vixen, Blackburn Buccaneer,SEPECAT Jaguar, and Panavia Tornado. The Royal Navy Sea Harrier carried only WE.177A, slung beneath the starboard wing. The B and C models were too large for this aircraft. At one time, eight Tornado squadrons were nuclear capable.
Three paint schemes are known to have been used on WE.177; overall white with red and yellow bands (early paint scheme from the 1960s), and overall green with red details (later paint scheme from the mid-1970s onwards). The drill weapon used for loading and flight drills was Oxford blue. This was so that a live round could easily be identified, but service procedures required all training rounds to be treated and handled as if they were live. The training rounds even returned the correct indications to the carrying aircraft systems if they were 'armed' in flight. Most of the examples of WE.177 training rounds in museums have been re-painted in green, presumably to look like the original live rounds — an example re-painted green is located on the ground underneath the port wing of the Tornado at the Midland Air Museum.
As with all British thermonuclear weapons, the tritium gas used in the bomb core was purchased from the United States as part of the 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement; that permitted the US to obtain UK weapons-grade plutonium, in exchange for enriched uranium, tritium, and other specialised material uneconomical to produce in the UK in the very small quantities required. An industrial plant codenamed Candle located adjacent to the Chapelcross nuclear power station, near the town of Annan, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, was built to recover tritium from time-expired service weapons returned for routine maintenance, or servicing. It was then recycled after re-lifing. All boosted fission weapons use tritium, which decays with time, reducing the designed fission yield by approx 4.4% per year. Reduction in the fission yield of a primary will reduce the thermonuclear nuclear yield by a similar proportion, or even lead to the thermonuclear fusion stage failing to ignite. To maintain optimum yield, all versions of WE.177 required routine maintenance at intervals of three years or slightly more. Normal servicing was carried out by specialist teams of RAF Armourers.
Part of the safety and arming system on the WE.177 series was a simple key operated Strike Enable Facility; using a cylindrical barrel key similar to those used on gaming machines. By agreement with the owners of the lock's design rights, the key profile for each and every live weapon was unique, and would not be used for any other purpose. The profile for the training rounds was also not used elsewhere, but all training rounds used the same profile. The physical safety characteristics of WE.177 were probably comparable to similar U.S. weapons, e.g. using the concept of being 'one-point-safe'. The safety and arming system was more sophisticated than on a conventional shell or bomb. The WE.177 safety and arming system had three safety breaks (which varied according to delivery mode) in the arming chain, whereas a conventional weapon only requires two.
The casing of WE.177 was unusually robust, and complicated, for a British air-dropped bomb; made necessary by the requirement for the laydown delivery options. The stresses from the opening of the drogue parachutes were particularly severe at the speed anticipated for the BAC TSR-2, the requirement stating a dropping speed of from Mach number M 0.75 to M 1.15, at a height of 50 feet (15 m) for TSR-2; and M 0.75 to M 0.95 for the Blackburn Buccaneer. This, together with the 'slap down' of the tail on impact required a strong, well-engineered bomb casing to ensure the enclosed warhead remained intact.
Apart from the laydown delivery requirement, the weapon was also required to be used in a 'divetoss' mode; from both the TSR-2 (WE.177A/B), and the RAF version of the Hawker Siddeley P.1154 (WE.177A). This involved releasing the weapon after a dive from 35,000 feet (10,700 m), with weapon release at between 15,000 feet (4,600 m) and 10,000 feet (3,000 m), and, for the TSR-2, at speeds from Mach 0.80 to Mach 2.05.
Intended clearance by 1970 for other types of aircraft and delivery methods included:
|Handley Page Victor Mk.2||WE.177A/B||laydown, ballistic, retarded|
|Avro Vulcan||WE.177A/B||laydown, ballistic, retarded|
|Vickers Valiant Mks: B.1, P.R., K.1., P.R.K.1||WE.177A||laydown, ballistic, retarded|
|BAC TSR-2||WE.177A/B||laydown, ballistic, retarded, loft, divetoss|
|English Electric Canberra Mk.B.15 & B.16||WE.177A||laydown, ballistic, retarded, loft|
|Blackburn Buccaneer Mk.2||WE.177A||laydown, loft, retarded|
|Sea Vixen Mk.2||WE.177A||laydown, loft, retarded|
|Westland Wasp||WE.177A||depth charge|
|Westland Lynx HAS.1||WE.177A||depth charge|
|Westland Wessex HAS.3||WE.177A||depth charge|
|Westland Wessex HUS||WE.177A||depth charge|
|Ikara (missile)||WE.177A||depth charge|
|Hawker Siddeley P.1154||WE.177A||laydown, loft, retarded (RN)|
|Hawker Siddeley P.1154||WE.177A||laydown, loft, dive toss (RAF)|
|Hawker Siddeley Nimrod||WE.177A||depth charge|
Later, the following aircraft were armed with WE.177:
|Blackburn Buccaneer Mk.2||WE.177A/B/C||laydown, loft, retarded|
|Panavia Tornado GR.1, GR.1A, GR.4, GR.4A||WE.177A/B/C||laydown, loft, retarded|
|SEPECAT Jaguar||WE.177A||laydown, loft, retarded|
|BAe Sea Harrier FRS1||WE.177A||laydown, loft, retarded|
WE.177A weighed 272 kilograms (599.7 lb), and had a variable yield of 10 kilotonnes (9,842 long tons; 11,023 short tons) or 0.5 kilotonnes (492 long tons; 551 short tons). It was known to the British Armed Forces as 'Bomb, Aircraft, HE 600lb MC'. 'MC' (Medium Capacity) referred to a nuclear weapon in the kiloton range. The suffix 'HC' (High Capacity) referred to a weapon in the megaton range, although there were some anomalies.
The 0.5 kt yield was used only in the nuclear depth bomb role for detonation above 130 feet (40 m) in shallow coastal waters, or in oceanic deep waters to limit damage to nearby shipping. The full 10 kt yield was used below 130 feet (40 m) in deep oceanic waters where no shipping was at risk. The full 10 kt yield was also used by fixed-wing aircraft for surface attack. It had air burst, ground burst or laydown delivery options.
Although this variant matched the original Improved Kiloton Weapon concept with an added nuclear depth bomb function, and was identified as the A model, it was not the first to be deployed, due to the more pressing needs for the strategic B models. At least forty-three were deployed aboard Royal Navy surface vessels of frigate size and larger; for use by embarked helicopters and Ikara systems (where fitted) as an anti-submarine nuclear depth bomb, starting in 1971. Ikara performed a similar function to the U.S. Navy's ASROC missile, which could also carry a nuclear warhead. The addition of a nuclear option to Ikara was intended to significantly improve its kill probability, while providing the escort commander with an instant-response, all-weather, all-conditions weapon to deploy against time-urgent targets. Helicopter-delivered nuclear depth bombs were not always immediately available, due to fuel-state, other taskings, or expended weapons load.
A further quantity of WE.177As were procured for the Fleet Air Arm's (FAA) fixed-wing strike aircraft. When the Navy's large aircraft carriers were decommissioned, around twenty warheads were transferred to the Royal Air Force. The remaining weapons that were assigned to the Royal Navy were retired in 1992.
WE.177B weighed 457 kilograms (1,007.5 lb), with a fixed yield of 450 kilotonnes (442,893 long tons; 496,040 short tons). Although it weighed in excess of 1000 lb, it was known in RAF Service as the 'Bomb, Aircraft, HE 950lb MC', to differentiate it from the conventional 'Bomb, Aircraft, 1000 lb GP HE', which gave rise to its popular name '950'. WE.177B had airburst, impact, or laydown options.
Numbers built are still uncertain, but reliable sources put the figure at fifty-three (53), and all were retired by August 1998. When Polaris became operational, the Vulcan force continued in a sub-strategic tactical role with these and other bombs assigned to the NATOSACEUR. With the retirement of the Vulcans, WE.177B was carried by successor aircraft, including the Panavia Tornado.
WE.177C weighed 457 kilograms (1,007.5 lb), with a fixed yield of 190 kilotonnes (186,999 long tons; 209,439 short tons).
WE.177C was deployed only in RAF Germany; in the tactical strike role, and used initially by the Jaguar, and later by the Tornado. It was deployed probably from the early 1970s, after deployment of Chevaline had begun. WE.177C was retired by August 1998. Numbers are speculative, but based on hard evidence in declassified files of the number of Polaris ET.317 warheads and spares, a figure of between forty-eight (48) and sixty (60) is likely.[original research?]
|WE.177A||282 kg (621.7 lb)||112 in (284.5 cm)||0.5 kt (492 long tons; 551 short tons), or|
10 kt (9,842 long tons; 11,023 short tons)
|WE.177B||457 kg (1,007.5 lb)||133 in (337.8 cm)||450 kt (442,893 long tons; 496,040 short tons)||1966–1995||~53|
|WE.177C||457 kg (1,007.5 lb)||133 in (337.8 cm)||200 kt (196,841 long tons; 220,462 short tons)||~1980–1998||~159|
Further development proposals
There were several proposals to adapt WE.177A for other delivery systems. Among them were proposals to re-engineer the WE.177A warhead into two submarine-launched heavyweight torpedoes, which received some attention. The Mk.24N Tigerfish nuclear-armed torpedo had approved project status for some years, but was eventually shelved. Its raison d'être was to overcome the performance shortcomings of the Tigerfish torpedo, and especially its failure to meet the dive-depth requirements needed to counter deep-diving Soviet SSNs and SSBNs that had outstripped western torpedo performance. There was also a proposal endorsed by Flag Officer Submarines (FOSM), the Royal Navy's professional head of the Submarine Service, to use the WE.177A warhead in another torpedo, the shallow-running unguided Mk.8 torpedo of World War II vintage. A Mk.8 torpedo was chosen to sink the Argentinian warship General Belgrano, because it was of proven reliability, unlike the unreliable Tigerfish. This proposal did not gain approved project status, although its raison d'être was similar to that for Tigerfish, and intended to counter extended delays in Tigerfish development. FOSM's proposal stated that a 10 kt nuclear detonation at the Mk.8 torpedo's running depth of approximately 40 feet (12 m) would destroy a deep-diving SSN at 2,000 feet (610 m) depth.
The planned M4-Minus version of the Ikara was also intended to have a nuclear depth charge option as an alternative to its intended payload of a Mark 44 or NAST 7511 torpedo. However, this was cancelled in 1966. The M4-Minus project was apparently cancelled altogether sometime later.
During the Cold War, WE.177A bombs, generally intended for use as depth charges (though able to be delivered in any operational mode by the Sea Harrier FRS1), were routinely carried on some Royal Navy warships, and the associated Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) replenishment ships. They were kept in containers that were designed to float if they ended up in the sea. In 1982, with the outbreak of the Falklands War, some of these vessels were urgently assigned to the Naval Task Force, and began to steam south with their nuclear weapons still on board. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) has said that, en route, the bombs were offloaded from escort vessels Broadsword, Brilliant, Coventry, and Sheffield; and were stored in the better-protected deep magazines aboard Hermes, Invincible; and the fleet replenishment ships Fort Austin, Regent, Resource, and Fort Grange who were accompanying the Task Force. Coventry and Sheffield were both later destroyed by enemy action near the Falkland Islands.
It is not clear if the weapons were removed from deep storage on these vessels before the Task Force engaged in action around the Falkland Islands, although the MoD assert that these ships did not enter Falkland Islands territorial waters, or any other areas subject to the Treaty of Tlatelolco (that established the Latin America Nuclear Weapons Free Zone), to which the UK was a signatory. The MoD assert that the Task Force Commander-in-Chief was given instructions on deployment of his forces to avoid any breach of the treaty. They also state that all the nuclear weapons were returned to the UK aboard the Royal Fleet Auxiliaries Fort Austin and Resource on 29 June and 20 July 1982 respectively, after the end of the Falklands War.
Reliable, recently published sources based upon recent research in declassified files in The National Archives (TNA), put eventual total numbers of all versions of WE.177 at between 200 and 250. All Royal Navy WE.177A weapons were retired in 1992. By August 1998, all RAF stock of all versions had been withdrawn and dismantled. In the early 1990s, the US withdrew all nuclear weapons that were assigned to British forces under NATOnuclear weapons sharing arrangements.
Trident D5 is the UK's sole remaining nuclear weapons delivery system (see Vanguard class submarine), believed armed with a strategic warhead also usable in the sub-strategic role formerly performed by WE.177. Various projects to produce a successor to WE.177 were abandoned.
Two inert WE.177A operational rounds are on display:
In addition, a number of WE.177 training rounds were donated to museums in the United Kingdom and one in the United States. Examples are on display at:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to WE.177.|
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuDr Richard Moore (March 2004). UK Nuclear History, Working Paper, Number: 1; The Real Meaning of the Words: a Pedantic Glossary of British Nuclear Weapons(pdf). Mountbatten Centre for International Studies (MCIS) (Report). University of Southampton.
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacad"Atomic Weapons Establishment > About AWE > History > WE.177 free-fall bomb enters service". AWE.co.uk. Burghfield: Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
- ^ abcdefghijklmn"Nuclear Weapons Database: United Kingdom arsenal". CDI.org. Center for Defense Information (CDI), Washington, D.C. 2 January 1997. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011.
- ^ abcdefghijklmOperation CORPORATE 1982 - the carriage of nuclear weapons by the Task Group assembled for the Falklands campaign(PDF). CBRN Policy (Report). United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 October 2012.
- ^ abcPublic Record Office (PRO), London. DEFE 24/389 E 42 Annex Appendix 1, June 1969.
- ^"engineering drawing depicting colour-coded two-dimensional sectional views of the WE.177A and WE.177B/C"(png image). Nuclear-Weapons.info. Brian Burnell's guide to British nuclear weapon projects. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- ^"Exhibits". BoscombeDownAviationCollection.co.uk. Boscombe Down Aviation Collection — Old Sarum Airfield, Salisbury.
- ^ ab"Photograph of RAF Armourers with a live WE.177 (B or C) nuclear bomb, and its associated WE.155 storage and transport container"(png image). Nuclear-Weapons.info. Brian Burnell's guide to British nuclear weapon projects. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- ^"Black and white photograph of a live WE.177 nuclear bomb in early white colour scheme, on a trolley". CDI.org. Center for Defense Information (CDI), Washington, D.C. Archived from the original(jpg image) on 14 February 2012.
- ^"Colour photograph of a training version of the WE.177 nuclear bomb, re-painted in hi-gloss green. Original training versions (of all models) were painted blue". Skomer.u-net.com. Skomer. Archived from the original(jpg image) on 4 February 2012.
- ^Public Record Office (PRO), London. TNA AIR 2/17328 E3A p1
- ^Although the Sea Harrier's pilot was able to select both the 'low' and 'high' yield depth charge modes, the aircraft was never cleared for this mode of delivery
- ^Various declassified files available at The National Archives (TNA), Kew, London.